Tuesday, June 18, 2019

PLGA-PEG-NH2 from PolySciTech used in research on drug-delivery across the Blood-Brain-Barrier

In general uptake of medicinal molecules into the brain tissue from the blood-stream is very poor due to the blood-brain-barrier which generally prevents most molecules from getting into the brain. This naturally occurring phenomenon makes treatment of neural diseases very difficult. Recently, researchers at Universidade do Porto (Portugal) used PLGA-PEG-NH2 (AI058) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) used to create functional nanoparticles for controlling the crossing of the blood-brain-barrier. This research holds promise to improve efficacy of neural treatments for a variety of diseases. Read more: Maria João Bidarra Tavares Gomes “Modulation of drug efflux at the blood-brain barrier through targeted siRNA delivery via nanoparticles” PhD dissertation Universidade do Porto 2017. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9a7e/057e12b64673536ad03b3560c4638941ee06.pdf

“Abstract (abbreviated): A BBB-targeted polymeric nanosystem was developed for delivery of siRNA against P-gp. Functionalized siRNA-loaded PLGA nanoparticles showed to be successful in silencing P-gp as a BBB efflux transporter and, consequently, in enhancing the blood-to-brain in vitro permeability of a P-gp substrate. Hence, drug efflux modulation at the BBB level was attained, bringing hope to CNS disorders treatments, since drugs could reach brain in higher and therapeutic concentrations. Additionally, being P-gp commonly over expressed at tumor cells, this polymeric system has the potential to be applied to cancer when properly functionalized to those cells.”

Biotech, Pharma, Cancer, Research (BPCR) is a free, 1-day scientific networking conference hosted by Akina, Inc. on Aug 28, 2019. See more and register to attend at www.bpcrconference.com

PolySciTech PLGA-Rhodamine used in Research on Nanoparticle-based Cancer Therapy

One of the major drawbacks to conventional chemotherapy against cancer is that the drugs applied are often not specific to the cancer cells. Rather, they simply inhibit the growth of all cells (both tumor and healthy) which leads to severe side-effects of chemotherapy. One strategy to deal with this is to generate systems which direct the flow of the chemotherapeutic agents to the site of the tumor or into the cancer cells themselves. Recently, researchers at University of Minnesota used fluorescently-tagged PLGA-Rhodamine (AV011) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to generate fluorescently traceable nanoparticles for MSC-mediated delivery to tumors. This research holds promise to improve the treatment of cancer. Read more: Layek, Buddhadev, Drishti Sehgal, Peter A. Argenta, Jayanth Panyam, and Swayam Prabha. "Nanoengineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Surface Modification for Efficient Cancer Therapy." Advanced Therapeutics: 1900043. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/adtp.201900043

“Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used for tumor-specific delivery of small molecular weight anticancer drugs by using nanoparticle-encapsulated forms of the drugs. Current approaches to incorporate nanoparticles in MSCs rely on nonspecific endocytosis of nanoparticles or their conjugation to the cell surface via endogenous amines and thiols. These methods result in sub-optimal drug loading, which hinders the widespread application of MSCs as drug carriers. An advanced nanoengineering strategy is reported here that involves generation of MSCs expressing azide functional groups on their surface and conjugation of dibenzyl cyclooctyne-functionalized nanoparticles to the azide groups using copper-free click chemistry. This novel strategy significantly improves the payload capacity of MSCs (48 pg of paclitaxel (PTX) per cell) relative to that reported previously (<1 0.0001="" 0.05="" abraxane="" affecting="" agents="" allows="" an="" and="" anticancer="" as="" br="" carriers.="" cell="" chemotherapeutic="" compared="" conventional="" delivery="" drug="" efficacy="" encapsulated="" for="" free="" growth="" here="" improve="" improved="" in="" inhibit="" model.="" mscs="" nanoengineered="" nanoengineering="" nanoparticle="" native="" of="" or="" orthotopic="" ovarian="" p="" per="" pg="" phenotype.="" ptx="" reported="" significantly="" strategy="" summary="" survival="" the="" their="" to="" tumor="" using="" vivo="" without="">
Biotech, Pharma, Cancer, Research (BPCR) is a free, 1-day scientific networking conference hosted by Akina, Inc. on Aug 28, 2019. See more and register to attend at www.bpcrconference.com

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Polyacrylamide from PolySciTech used in fundamental research on shear thickening/rheology

A fun experiment you can try at home is to mix 2 parts corn starch with 1 part water forming a colloidal suspension which flows easily under slight force but stiffens when exposed to a lot of force (shear thickening). This is a simple example of a non-Newtonian fluid (one in which the relationship between force and viscosity is not linear). Non-newtonian fluids of varying degrees of complexity have a wide array of uses both in industry and in medicine. Recently, researchers at University of Houston and Georgetown University used Polyacrylamide from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to test for the effects of colloidal attraction in non-Newtonian complex suspensions. This fundamental research holds promise for a wide variety of applications both industrial and biomedical. Read more: Park, Nayoung, Vikram Rathee, Daniel L. Blair, and Jacinta C. Conrad. "Contact Networks Enhance Shear Thickening in Attractive Colloid-Polymer Mixtures." Physical Review Letters 122, no. 22 (2019): 228003. https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.228003

“ABSTRACT: Increased shear thinning arising due to strong attractive interactions between colloidal particles is thought to obscure shear thickening. Here, we demonstrate how moderate attractions, induced by adding a nonadsorbing polymer, can instead enhance shear thickening. We measure the rheology of colloidal suspensions at a constant particle volume fraction of ϕ = 0.40 with dilute to weakly semidilute concentrations of three polyacrylamide depletants of different molecular weights. Suspensions containing large polymer exhibit increased shear thickening and positive first normal stress differences at high shear stress, and increased heterogeneous fluctuations in the boundary stress. These results are consistent with a friction-based model for shear thickening, suggesting that the presence of large, extended polymers induces the formation of near-spanning networks of interparticle contacts.”

Biotech, Pharma, Cancer, Research (BPCR) is a free, 1-day scientific networking conference hosted by Akina, Inc. on Aug 28, 2019. See more and register to attend at www.bpcrconference.com

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

PLCL from PolySciTech used in research on polymer degradation and mechanical properties

Polyesters degrade by hydrolysis of the ester bonds forming a random series of cuts along the chain which initially reduce the molecular weight and affect the mechanical properties before eventually degrading the entire piece away. This process is strongly affected by the environment around the polyester chain. Recently, researchers at Technical University of Liberec (Czech Republic) used PLCL from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to generate test samples. This research holds promise for a better understanding of degradation rate relationship to enzymes and other factors. Read more: Lisnenko, Maxim “ Impact of degradation on mechanical properties of nanofibrous polyester materials” Technical University of Liberec Thesis, 2019. https://dspace.tul.cz/bitstream/handle/15240/152429/Lisnenko_Maxim_BP_2018.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

“ABSTRACT The main aim of this work is a study the mechanical properties of polyester nanofibrous materials during degradation. The degradation of the materials was achieved by using enzymes that catalyse the decomposition of polyesters. The theoretical part describes, in brief, the production of nanofibrous layers by electrospinning. In addition to this, the part deals with the characteristic of the chemical-physical properties of the used materials such as PCL, PLCL and their Blend in particular, as well as a brief description of degradation types. The experimental part is focused on the description of the degradation of materials, which represents a simulation of the degradation process by using specific enzymes (Lipase and Proteinase K) in order to prepare the materials in different degrees of degradation and to measure their mechanical properties. Weight loss, molecular weight change, material morphology and crystallinity change were the determinants of degradation. A pull test was used as a determinant for mechanics. During the test tensile and deformation characteristics, such as tensile strength, ductility and the elastic modulus, are observed. Finally, the results of the work, which show that the degradation has a significant influence on the mechanical properties that deteriorate during the testing, are evaluated. KEY WORDS: nanofibers, degradation, polyesters, enzymatic degradation, mechanical properties”

Biotech, Pharma, Cancer, Research (BPCR) is a free, 1-day scientific networking conference hosted by Akina, Inc. on Aug 28, 2019. See more and register to attend at www.bpcrconference.com

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

PEG-PLA from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticle-based brain-cancer therapy

One mechanism for treating cancer is to modify the genomic expression of the cancer cells reducing their potential to spread and cause pathological effects. Recently, Researchers at Arizona State University used mPEG-PLA (AK056) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create panobinostat loaded nanoparticles for cancer therapy. This research holds promise to treat medulloblastoma. Read more: Dharmaraj, Shruti. "Fabrication and Characterization of Panobinostat Loaded PLA-PEG Nanoparticles." PhD diss., Arizona State University, 2019. https://search.proquest.com/openview/f90b9cc74a56188a3c59b67784a746e2/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y

“Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain cancer and is classified into four different subgroups based on genetic profiling: sonic hedgehog (SHH), WNT, Group 3 and 4. Changes in gene expression often alter the progression and development of cancers. One way to control gene expression is through the acetylation and deacetylation of histones. More specifically in medulloblastoma SHH and Group 3, there is an increased deacetylation, and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can be used to target this change. Not only can HDACi target increases in deacetylation, they are also known to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The combination of these factors has made HDACi a promising cancer therapeutic. Panobinostat, a hydrophobic, small molecule HDACi was recently identified as a potent molecule of interest for the treatment of medulloblastoma. Furthermore, panobinostat has already been FDA approved for treatment in multiple myeloma and is being explored in clinical trials against various solid tumors. The laboratory is interested in developing strategies to encapsulate panobinostat within nanoparticles composed of the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG). Nanoparticles are formed by single emulsion, a process in which hydrophobic drugs can be trapped within the hydrophobic nanoparticle core. The goal was to determine if the molecular weight of the hydrophobic portion of the polymer, PLA, has an impact on loading of panobinostat in PLA-PEG nanoparticles. Nanoparticles formulated with PLA of varying molecular weight were characterized for loading, size, zeta potential, controlled release, and in vivo tolerability. The results of this work demonstrate that panobinostat loaded nanoparticles are optimally formulated with a 20:5kDa PLA-PEG, enabling loading of ~3.2 % w/w panobinostat within nanoparticles possessing an average diameter of 102 nm and surface charge of -8.04 mV. Panobinostat was released from nanoparticles in a potentially biphasic fashion over 72 hours. Nanoparticles were well tolerated by intrathecal injection, although a cell culture assay suggesting reduced bioactivity of encapsulated drug warrants further study. These experiments demonstrate that the molecular weight of PLA influences loading of panobinostat into PLA-PEG nanoparticles and provide basic characterization of nanoparticle properties to enable future in vivo evaluation.”

Biotech, Pharma, Cancer, Research (BPCR) is a free, 1-day scientific networking conference hosted by Akina, Inc. on Aug 28, 2019. See more and register to attend at www.bpcrconference.com

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel from PolySciTech used in development of gene delivery system to reduce infections during pregnancy

According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm each year and the complications caused by premature birth are the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age. One of the causes of premature birth, and other birth complications, is infection of the uterus during pregnancy with bacteria. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides in the cervical canal prevent these infections and encouraging the formation of these peptides could potentially protect pregnant women reducing the incidence of premature labor. Recently, researchers at University College London, King’s College London, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom), and University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa) utilized PLGA-PEG-PLGA (PolyVivo AK012) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to deliver a viral vector for gene transfer to the cervix in an animal model. They found this could be used to reduce infections during pregnancy. This research holds promise to reduce the incidence of premature birth. Read more: Suff, Natalie, Rajvinder Karda, Juan Antinao Diaz, Joanne Ng, Julien Baruteau, Dany Perocheau, Peter W. Taylor et al. "Cervical gene delivery of the antimicrobial peptide, Human β-defensin (HBD)-3, in a mouse model of ascending infection-related preterm birth." bioRxiv (2019): 643171. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/643171v1.abstract

“Approximately 40% of preterm births are preceded by microbial invasion of the intrauterine space: ascent from the vagina is the most common pathway. Within the cervical canal, antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) help to constitute a barrier which prevents ascending infection. We investigated whether expression of the AMP, human β-defensin-3 (HBD3), in the cervical mucosa prevented bacterial ascent from the vagina into the uterine cavity of pregnant mice. An adeno-associated virus vector containing both the HBD3 gene and GFP transgene (AAV8 HBD3.GFP) or control (AAV8 GFP), was administered intravaginally into E13.5 pregnant mice. Ascending infection was induced at E16.5 using bioluminescent E.coli (E.coli K1 A192PP-lux2). Bioluminescence imaging showed bacterial ascent into the uterine cavity, cellular events that led to premature delivery and a reduction in pups born alive, compared with uninfected controls. In addition, a significant reduction in uterine bioluminescence in the AAV8 HBD3.GFP-treated mice was observed 24 hours post-E.coli infection, compared to AAV8 GFP treated mice, signifying reduced bacterial ascent in AAV8 HBD3.GFP-treated mice. There was also an increase in the number of living pups in AAV HBD3.GFP-treated mice. We propose that HBD3 may be considered a possible candidate for augmenting cervical innate immunity to prevent ascending infection-related preterm birth.”

Biotech, Pharma, Cancer, Research (BPCR) is a free, 1-day scientific networking conference hosted by Akina, Inc. on Aug 28, 2019. See more and register to attend at www.bpcrconference.com

Friday, May 24, 2019

Memorial Day Closure

Akina, Inc. will be closed May 27, 2019 for Memorial Day. Orders placed at that time will be processed the following day.