New publication combines PTX delivery via PolyVivo AK09 along with ultrasound techniques for treatment of cancer:
Rapoport, Natalya, Allison Payne, Christopher Dillon, Jill Shea, Courtney Scaife, and Roohi Gupta. "Focused ultrasound-mediated drug delivery to pancreatic cancer in a mouse model." Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound 1, no. 1 (2013): 11.
Many aspects of the mechanisms involved in ultrasound-mediated therapy remain obscure. In
particular, the relative roles of drug and ultrasound, the effect of the time of ultrasound
application, and the effect of tissue heating are not yet clear. The current study was
undertaken with the goal to clarify these aspects of the ultrasound-mediated drug delivery
Focused ultrasound-mediated drug delivery was performed under magnetic resonance
imaging guidance (MRgFUS) in a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) model grown
subcutaneously in nu/nu mice. Paclitaxel (PTX) was used as a chemotherapeutic agent
because it manifests high potency in the treatment of gemcitabine-resistant PDA. Poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D,L-lactide) block copolymer stabilized perfluoro-15-crown-5-
ether nanoemulsions were used as drug carriers. MRgFUS was applied at sub-ablative
pressure levels in both continuous wave and pulsed modes, and only a fraction of the tumor
Positive treatment effects and even complete tumor resolution were achieved by treating the
tumor with MRgFUS after injection of nanodroplet encapsulated drug. The MRgFUS
treatment enhanced the action of the drug presumably through enhanced tumor perfusion and
blood vessel and cell membrane permeability that increased the drug supply to tumor cells.
The effect of the pulsed MRgFUS treatment with PTX-loaded nanodroplets was clearly
smaller than that of continuous wave MRgFUS treatment, supposedly due to significantly
lower temperature increase as measured with MR thermometry and decreased extravasation.
The time of the MRgFUS application after drug injection also proved to be an important
factor with the best results observed when ultrasound was applied at least 6 h after the
injection of drug-loaded nanodroplets. Some collateral damage was observed with particular
ultrasound protocols supposedly associated with enhanced inflammation.
This presented data suggest that there exists an optimal range of ultrasound application
parameters and drug injection time. Decreased tumor growth, or complete resolution, was
achieved with continuous wave ultrasound pressures below or equal to 3.1 MPa and drug
injection times of at least 6 h prior to treatment. Increased acoustic pressure or ultrasound
application before or shortly after drug injection gave increased tumor growth when
compared to other protocols."
See the full-text here: http://www.jtultrasound.com/content/pdf/2050-5736-1-11.pdf