Thakkar, Dhaval, Roohi Gupta, Kenneth Monson, and Natalya Rapoport. "Effect of Ultrasound on the Permeability of Vascular Wall to Nano-emulsion Droplets." Ultrasound in medicine & biology (2013). (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301562913006868)---abstract---
The effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels to nano-emulsion droplets was investigated using excised mouse carotid arteries as model blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon nano-droplets were formed by perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether and stabilized by poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(DL-lactide) block co-polymer shells. Nano-droplet fluorescence was imparted by interaction with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (molecular weight = 70,000 Da). The permeability of carotid arteries to nano-droplets was studied in the presence and absence of continuous wave or pulsed therapeutic 1-MHz ultrasound. The data indicated that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of the vascular wall to nano-droplets. The effect of continuous wave ultrasound was substantially stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound of the same total energy. No effect of blood vessel pre-treatment with ultrasound was observed.